Under the Constitution of India, education is a concurrent subject, with a sharing of responsibilities between the Centre (Ministry of Human Resource Development) and States (Departments of Education). Management of schooling has been traditionally supervised and administered by the State and District administration.
India has the world’s largest population in the age group of 5 to 24 years. It has more than 50 (Fifty) crore people in the age group of 25 to 59 years, which constitutes the working population and is expected to continuously increase even as the world’s working population ages and diminishes. This phenomenon will make India a supplier of workforce to the entire world. In the wake of this reality, the Indian education system should therefore be able to produce a workforce which is globally competitive and thus reap its demographic dividend. The Common Services Centers (CSCs) can play a major role in enhancing the spread of education and producing an employable workforce in India.
Literacy in India is one of the important factors in socio-economic progress. The Indian literacy rate currently stands at 74 per cent compared to 12 per cent at the time of Independence in 1947. Although there has been a six fold growth, the level is well below the world average literacy rate of 84 per cent. India currently has the largest illiterate population compared to any other nation in the world. A quick look at Figure 1 below provides an insight into the current literacy rates, total enrollment in school education and higher education of India.
- Male - 82.14%
- Female - 65.46%
- Both - 74.04%
Total Enrollment in School Education
- Primary - 14.67 Crore
- Middle -9.02 Crore
- Secondary - 7.92 Crore
- Higher Secondary - 3.78 Crore
Higher Education Institutions
- No. of colleges - 17,000 approximately
- University or University level institutions - 497
- Literate - 77.8 Crore
- Enrollment in undergraduation and above - 3.76 Crore
Educational Scenario of India (Source: Census of India 2011)